Blue Sky God

Myths are the stories people tell to explain nature, history, and customs. The myth is a feature of every culture. Comparative mythology is the comparison of myths from different cultures in an attempt to identify shared themes and characteristics. Comparative mythology has served a variety of academic purposes. For example, scholars have used the relationships between different myths to trace the development of religions and cultures, to propose common origins for myths from different cultures, and to support various psychological theories. However, the poetic descriptions had become distorted over time into seemingly diverse stories about gods and heroes.

The Sarasvati River is one of the main Rigvedic Rivers mentioned in the scripture Rig Veda. Indo-European tribes lived there together and the ‘Indus Valley culture’ was developed. Aryan Gods like Indra, Agni, Saraswati, Surya and the Maruts years before and worshiped. The religious practices depicted in the Rgveda and those depicted in the Avesta, the central religious text of Zoroastrianism, show similarities. Connections between languages can be traced because the processes that change languages are not random, but follow strict patterns. Especially sound shifts, the changing of vowels and consonants, are important, although grammar (especially morphology) and the lexicon (vocabulary) may also be significant. Historical-comparative linguistics thus makes it possible to see great similarities between languages which at first sight might seem very different.

South Asia harbors two major ancestral components, namely the Ancestral North Indians which is “genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans,” and the Ancestral South Indians. These two groups mixed in India between 4,200 and 1,900 years ago (2200 BCE-100 CE) and were called as ‘Aryans’.

The word ‘Arya’ to denotes those peoples who spoke the Indo-European languages, which include English, German, Latin, Greek, Romans, Egyptians, Germans, Balts, Celts, Russian, Persian, Slavs, and Sanskrit. They lived together prior to the Rigvedic period on the banks of life-giving Saraswati River that was flowing down the Himalayan slopes with great splendor with abundant waters and copious rains provided ample sustenance for their farming and other activities. They established kingdoms, formed alliances, and created common systems of worship, living, and trade; as also measurement and mathematics. They developed ongoing cultural and trade contacts. The archeological discoveries in India, Russia, and Japan have pushed back the antiquity of the Aryans to at least 6000BC.

It took root well before the heyday of the pharaohs of Egypt (7000-3000 BC) or the Mesopotamian civilization (6500-3100 BC) in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates. The cradles of civilization were the Indus Valley Civilization existed for at least a thousand years before 6000BC along the Indus River. This was bigger than the civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Aryans were the founders of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization.

The Rigveda Hymns 1.108.8 and 8.10.5 gave details on the Rig Vedic Battles of Ten Kingdoms was fought on a question of values, not race. It was a conflict between spiritual values and materialistic values. Added to this, the Climate change, drought, deforestation, flooding, and socioeconomic strains, violence, and disease played a key role in the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization.

It was a turning point in the history of India because it firmly re-established the dominance of the Puru-Bharata Dynasty over smaller royal dynasties and tribal chieftains of the Sapta – Sindhu region going west towards present – day Magnolia, Afghanistan, Persia and east towards Foothills of the Himalayas and laid the foundations of Bharatavarsha. This Battle was also important as it heralded the spread of Vedic beliefs to other parts of the world.

The one subject that is still widely taught today is ancient Greek mythology. It is explicitly embodied in a large collection of narratives, and implicitly in Greek representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. These stories may have been written hundreds if not thousands of years ago, but it is good to remember they were written by wise men that had a hand in helping shape modern thinking. These great men, Aristotle and Sophocles to name a few, were not mere story-tellers; they didn’t spend their days weaving tales just because they wanted to and had nothing to do. They were too good for that and this is why their Greek myths have withstood the test of time and are relevant to today.

Several of antiquity’s great civilizations kept written records of the past. Yet the discipline of history in its modern form did not emerge until the Greeks—as well as the Romans and Chinese—began producing well-researched, secular narratives of events that made at least some attempt to separate fact from myth.

Well, all in Indo-European mythologies,   the gods conquering demons and order conquering chaos is especially common. In Hindu mythology, the younger Devas (gods) battle the older Asuras (demons), though both are born from the same father, Kashyap, the grandson of Brahma. In the Greek myth of the Titanomachy, the Olympian gods defeat the Titans, an older and more primitive divine race, and establish cosmic order. Similarly, the Celtic gods of life and light struggled against the ancient gods of death and darkness.

The Mount Kailash, Mount Olympus, and Mount Fuji are Three Sacred Mountains in the Eastern Hemisphere. These are central to the subjects of many legends because they are closest to heaven or other religious worlds, which considered holy.

Mount Kailash is in almost in equal distance between to its eastern side at 3283 miles on 35°21′29″N 138°43′52″E is Mount Fuji near Tokyo in Japan with an elevation of 12,389.2 ft Japanese is an attractive volcanic cone. To the western side of Mount Kailash at 3308 miles on 40°05′08″N 22°21′31″E is Mount Olympus, highest peak Mytikas in Greece rises to 9,573 ft as the abode of 12 Olympian gods.

These Sacred Mountains  have surfaced the  historical or mythological roots by the various works of Historians and a number of Byzantine Greek writers and oldest known Greek literary sources including Homer’s Epic Poetry stories in the Iliad and Odyssey and reconciled origins with story-cycles clustered around the great Goddess Athena who considered as incarnation of mother Goddess Parvati and worship her in Greece, as well in the South and Central Asia, encompassing Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Tibet, Nepal, China and Japan. Egyptians worshiped her as the Libyan deity, Neith. Romans worshiped her as goddess Minerva. The Hurrians worshiped her as the goddess of the chaste virgin who had never taken a lover. She is worshiped as Tara throughout Tibet, Nepal and much of South-East Asia. She is worshiped as Mazu in the south-eastern coastal areas of China and neighboring areas in Southeast Asia as the goddess of the sea. She is worshiped as Quan Yin (Japanese Kannon). The sea and ships, as well as horses and chariots, are associated with her.

According to the Greek Mythology, Athena was the favorite daughter of Zeus and of the Titan Metis and one of the most powerful of the 12 Olympian gods. Her Abode is Mount Olympus in Greece.

Goddess Athena was unhappy in the way the noble Andromache was treated by Greeks. Now she chose the womb of Andromache to take birth as Olympias to have a Godson to establish righteous rule with justice and equality to all on the earth and put into application the concepts of “Citizenship, “Democracy” “Globalization” and build new cities with excellent infrastructure connecting West and East with Silk Road and Sea Routes.  This was agreed by both Goddesses Hera and Aphrodite. All three Goddesses wanted King of Gods Zeus to give a Godson Alexander who would be the undefeated warrior king of the world with traits of Hercules, Achilles, and Hector to Olympias, the mortal form of Athena.

After receiving the blessings of King of Gods Zeus, the majestic, elegant, graceful, and the sophisticated Goddess of the Olympians carried a trident three-pronged spear, similar to a pitchfork with a floral decoration whose fragrant aroma gave forth from her body. She stepped out her owl with flashing eyes and moved into the womb of Andromache in invisible form, the birth of Olympias began at Epirus…

In July, 324 BC, the Great Assembly was conveyed by Alexander as he found that the solutions were not lying in the battles. The military achievements of Alexander have no rival in History. He had put into application the concepts of “Citizenship, but “Democracy” “Globalization” and built more than 70 new cities with excellent infrastructure. He laid Silk Road and Developed Sea Routes connecting both West and East. He tried to bring about a marriage of Eastern and Western cultures and create a unified world empire. He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered and he personally led various battles, unlike many kings who used to send their commanders to battles. He adapted friendly approach to his enemy that made him win the heart of all which shows what a great statesman he was! He had spread the Greek culture and values across the world and earned the epithet “the Great” due to his unparalleled success as a military commander.

Thousands of the linguistic specialist here have been developed a process of communication between Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Greece, Jordan, Israel, Anatolia, Phoenicia, Judea, Gaza, Bactria, Sogdia, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Egypt, Pakistan, Italian, Reggio Calabria, Rome, and Mesopotamia and geared up to replicate the languages of China, Japan, Korea and other countries.

The Olympic flame was sending its glow to the whole world, in which Queen Olympias was shining mysteriously, as she saw her son was showered with laurels by all Emperors and Empresses of the East and West. Right, there from her ethereal quality the great mother Athena suddenly manifested that stunned Alexander the great. She spoke very softly, “Oh my beloved son! Much pleased I am to say that I took the mortal form of Olympias as I desired to give birth to you as the triple powered hero with the traits of Hercules, Achilleis, and Hector. Your military achievements have no rival in History. You had put into application Citizenship, Democracy, and Globalization concepts and built new cities with excellent infrastructure. You did lay Silk Road and Developed Sea Routes connecting both West and East.  You did create a unified world empire, yet never lost a battle and personally led various battles, unlike many kings who used to send their commanders to battles. You have adapted friendly approach to your enemy and won their hearts, which valued most! Further, you have spread and exchanged culture and values across the world and earned the epithet “the Great” due to your unparalleled success!  You are always on your own strength, courage, valor, and self-esteem in the face of adversity!”

Now she turned towards Mount Olympus and said, “Oh, father Zeus! Thank you for giving me Godson who built the greatest empire in the shortest span of time in the history of the world.  Now that my son accomplished his life mission, he is free. You can invite him to Havens with love and devotion, I praise and honor you!”

Alexander fell at the feet of the great Mother Goddess Athena and said, “Oh great mother! I am greatly indebted to you for all you have done for me.”

Just then, there was a lightning flickered with a continuous resonant sound in the skies as all the Olympic Gods descended joined by angels and saints and showering their blessings on Alexander the great!

Zeus, King of Gods said gently, “Oh dear Alexander! You are an eternal on the Earth! History will remember your accomplishments and see your greatness for establishing ideological global governance, evidencing a dramatic change in regimes of power: politically, economically and culturally for the welfare of all! We even need you in Heaven, Just Join us.” When Alexander joined his mother Athena, they all moved into the sky chariots, while all the participants watching spellbound!

Alexander’s body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket. According to Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander was laid to rest “would be happy and unvanquishable forever”. His death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed. After his death, Roxanne gave birth to his son. His General Perdiccas initially did not claim power instead suggesting that Roxanne’s baby would be king if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager, rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexander’s half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only.

The successors of Alexander the Great were called Diadochi. During the first 50 years after Alexander’s death, they fought a series of wars, named Wars of the Diadochi. It was split up among his three “highest/most loyal/most aggressive/whatever” generals into a Greek/Macedonian, Persian, and Egyptian Empire. Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians, however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed. Three main Successor States emerged:

The Ptolemies based themselves in Egypt, their main stronghold at Alexandria, but possessed colonies in Cyprus and the southern coast of Anatolia;

The Antigonids held onto Macedon, their capital at Thessalonica; and

The Seleucids, arguably the wealthiest of the three, controlled what is now Lebanon, Syria, and much of southern Turkey, their seat of power being Antioch.

Some smaller states existed. One of the more economically successful ones was Pergamum/ Pergamon, ruled by the Attalid dynasty, but other states include Pontus on the southern coast of the Black Sea and Nicomedia, based on the east bank of the Dardanelles. In the process, both Alexander IV and Philip III were murdered.

Where Alexander the Great left his Physical Body, there took place “The Evolution of Blue Sky God.”

Zeus is the King of the Gods and the ruler of the heavens had called for a meeting with all Sky Gods and Goddesses of Greek and others at the Burkhan Khaldun Mountain in the south slopes of the Khentii Mountains, northeast of Ulaanbaatar. This area is the watershed between the Arctic Tuul River and Pacific Kherlen, Onon basins and named “Three” river basins.

The gods attended to choose the God of Blue Sky are Hera, who is the Queen of Heaven and goddess of the air and starry constellations. Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. Aiolos is the king of the winds. He is appointed by Zeus to guard the storm winds which he kept locked away inside the floating island of Aeolia, releasing them at the request of the gods to wreak their havoc. Aither is the primeval god of the shining light of the blue sky. He is conceived of as the substance of light, a layer of bright mist which lay between the dome of heaven and the lower air which surrounded the earth. Astraeus is the Titan god of the stars. He is the father of the planets and the four seasonal winds by Eos the dawn. Astrothesiae is the spirits or living forms of the heavenly constellations. They are mostly heroes and creatures who were placed amongst the stars by the gods as a reward for some service or, in a handful of cases, as a memorial of their crimes. Aura is the Titan goddess of the breeze. Aurae were the nymphs of the breezes. Boreas is the god of the north wind whose wintry breath brought the cold of winter. He dwelt in a cave in the mountains of the far northern land of Thrace. Hecatoncheires were the three hundred-armed, fifty-headed giants. They were the gods of violent storms which they released from the gates of Tartarus. Eos is the winged goddess of the dawn. Eosphoros is the god of the dawn-star (the star Venus) seen in the morning skies. “Euros” is the god of the east wind and herald of the autumn season. Helios is the god of the sun whose orb was he wore upon his head as a bright aureole crown. Hesperus is the god of the evening star (the planet Venus). Hemera is the primeval goddess of the day. Herse is the goddess of the morning dew. Iris is the goddess of the rainbow. Khaos is the primeval goddess of the gap between heaven and earth. She was the air which men breathed. Khione is the goddess of snow. She was the daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia. Nyx is the primeval goddess of night. Notos is the god of the hot and sticky south wind who heralded the month of summer. Oreithyia is the goddess of cold, gusty mountain winds. She was the wife of Boreas. Ouranos is the primeval god whose body formed the solid dome of heaven. The Greeks imagined him as a bronze-bodied, star-spangled god whose hands rested upon the earth in the farthest east and feet in the farthest west. Selene is the goddess of the moon. Zephyrus is the god of the gentle west wind and the herald of spring.

Zeus is the King of the Gods said, “As you know that the gods of sky and weather were named “Theoi Ouranioi” or “Theoi Meteoroi” and Dyaus is the chief Indo-European sky father. The sky deities of Daytime-gods are typically distinct from the Nighttime-gods. They are collectively categorized as “Sky father” deities, with a polarity between sky and earth often being expressed by pairing a “Sky father” god with an “Earth mother” goddess. Tengri is considered to be strikingly similar to the sky god, Dyaus, and I propose that Tengri as the main god of the Turkic pantheon, controlling the celestial sphere.”

Tengri is now mandated by the God of Blue Sky unanimously by all.

Hera, the Queen of Heaven and goddess of the air and starry constellations said, “Congratulation Tengri! Thou were the Alexander the great! Thou shall be the main god of the Turkic pantheon, controlling the celestial sphere! From now Thou shall be worshipped as the chief deity of the Göktürks in the Central Asia.”

Zeus, the King of the Gods said, “The Burkhan Khaldun means the “God Mountain” and is also called Khentii Khan (The King of the Khentii Mountain range). It is one of the Khentii Mountains in the Khentii Province of northeastern Mongolia. It is the highest mountain in the region, rising to an elevation of 2,362 meters (7,749 ft), and is crescent-shaped. It is the source of several rivers: the Onon and Kherlen rivers flow into the Amur, which has its outfall in the Pacific Ocean; and the rivers Tuul, Kharaa and Yeruu flow northwards to join the Selenge, which empties into the Arctic Ocean. It is in a complex ecosystem with unique biodiversity which is defined as a “transition zone from Siberian permafrost land forms to great steppe”

Great Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and its surrounding landscape, lies in the central part of the Khentii mountains chain that forms the watershed between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, where the vast Central Asian steppe meets the coniferous forests of the Siberian taiga. Water from the permanently snow-capped mountains feeds significant rivers flowing both to the north and south. High up the mountains are forests and lower down mountain steppe, while in the valley below are open grasslands dissected by rivers feeding swampy meadows. Burkhan Khaldun is associated with Genghis Khan, as his reputed burial site and more widely with his establishment of the Mongol Empire in 1206. It is one of four sacred mountains he designated during his lifetime, as part of the official status he gave to the traditions of mountain worship, based on long standing shamanic traditions associated with nomadic peoples. This reflects the formalization of mountain worship by Genghis Khan, a key factor in his success in unifying the Mongol peoples during the creation of the Mongolian Empire, an event of vital historical significance for Asian and world history. A part of ancient Silk Road had been crossing through the Gobi Altai Region of western Mongolia.

Burkhan Khaldun Mountain has a spiritual significance unmatched by any other mountain in Mongolia, and is given the symbolic status of the “cradle” of Mongolia’s nationhood fully representing the “heritage and traditional ways of life of nomadic people of Mongolia”. It has given authenticity to the spiritual nature of the mountain, and as a result, regular pilgrimage is under taken by the people to the three sacred major ovoos or stone cairns fixed at the sacred sites along a specified route where Mongolian shamanic worship is offered. The specified route is unique and covers: Main Ovoo of Heaven at the pinnacle of the mountain via Gurvan Khoriud (“Three Forbidden Precincts”); the Uud Mod (“Two Trees of Entrance”); the Bosgo Tengeriin Davaa (“Threshold Pass of Heaven”); the catchment of the Kherlen River and the Sacred Bogd Rivers; and finally to the Beliin (“Lowest”) Ovoo.

This is where the Shamanism would become prevalent as a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness. The shaman also enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements. The shaman operates primarily within the spiritual world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment.

Thou shall be known to make plants grow and the lightning flash!  Flowers always have a very special place in our lives. Flowers look beautiful and they are used by humans to decorate places, worship, and convey feelings, emotions, and sentiments to others by gifting flowers and growing flower gardens for landscaping and aesthetic happiness.

Have you ever passed by a bunch of Magnolia or Champaka flowers, and stopped and looked at them in awe? Yes, these pretty flowers are a pleasant sight. But, did you know that the oil derived from these flowers can actually uplift your mood and act as a stress buster?

As a matter of fact, the evergreen plant that blooms the Champaka flower is considered sacred and is cultivated mostly in India. The aroma of Nag Champaka oil is heavy yet sweet. It is majorly used in places of religious worship in India. This is owing to its calming effect on the mind. The fragrance helps in making the devotees calm and focused on the prayer and religious activities happening in such places. The heavy aroma lingers in the temples and other places of worship for a long time and creates an aromatic ambiance that befits the nature of such places. In some Asian cuisines, the buds are pickled and used to flavor rice and scent tea. In Japan, the young leaves and flower buds of Magnolia hypogeusia are boiled and eaten as a vegetable.  The bark and flower buds of have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. The aromatic bark activates the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. The French song describes the magnolia trees in Beirut and calls for peace.”

Mongolia, the ‘Land of Blue Sky’, home of the greatest empire the world has ever known and Asia’s last undiscovered wilderness. Awesome expanses of rolling steppe, home to Mongolia’s famous horses and herdsmen, meet high glacial mountains, impenetrable forests and deep, crystal lakes. To the south the great Gobi Desert stretches to the horizon; empty save for deep canyons and sweeping dunes. Across much of this vast land little has changed since the days of Genghis Khan….. Read ” Khan the Great” and know more about Genghis Khan.,,,,Sivkishen Ji, Author



In Sanskrit “Mongolia Flower” is known as “Champaka or Sampangi”. This has a unique, heavy yet fascinating aroma that has made the oil and the products made from it popular worldwide. There are several ingredients that are used in the making of this scented oil, and the base is made of Champaka flowers. The oil is made using sandalwood, which is beneficial for human skin. It works as an insect repellent and antiseptic agent on the skin. It’s heavy, lingering aroma overpowers bad odors and other unwanted smells for a long time. It’s fragrance helps relax your nerves that focus on a specific thought or work.

This Magnolia is one of the most magnificent of the fragrant trees. Its trunk is typically straight and erect with spreading branches that form a dense, broadly pyramidal crown. It has large, thick, leathery dark green leaves which are up to 10 inches long. In the spring, they have a golden to rust color on their undersides. The large evergreen trees may grow to 90 ft tall, and the fragrant white blossoms that have smooth, almost velvet-looking petals, are 8-12 inches across. The snow white flowers are huge, and cup-shaped when young. The fruits are reddish-brown cone like structures, 2-4 in long, with bright red kidney shaped seeds that hang from little threads when fully mature in autumn. In the US, the magnolia is used as a street tree, a free standing specimen, a framing tree, or shade tree. In most parts of India, magnolias are grown only in select well-maintained gardens. In Manipur, magnolias are commonly grown – the Manipuri name ootahmbal means “tree lotus” – flowers are used as offering in Puja.

Dwarf Magnolia is a wonderful plant which captures the beauty of magnolias (normally big trees) in a flower pot. The flowers are small and very fragrant. They usually last only a day and open in the evening, the tepals falling by morning. This species is a good houseplant, the most suitable magnolia for indoors, thanks to its small size and slow growth rate. Its long flowering period provides indoor fragrance and color about nine months of a year. Most of magnolias lack nectarines, but the Magnolia coco is a nice exception. It secrets a nectar-like substance at the base of the tepals and between the stigmas…. Indoors it can be grown as a small house plant in a pot where it gets only 2-3 ft tall and blooms in young age. Fragrance is outstanding especially in early morning, and reminds one of champaka. This probably inspired its other names, Michelia coco and Michelia pumila. This is a true magnolia – the blooms are at the ends of the branches, rather than from the leaf axils as they are in the Michelia group.

Sea Mango is a small evergreen coastal tree growing up 12 m tall. The shiny dark-green leaves are alternate, ovoid in shape. The flowers are fragrant, possessing a white tubular 5 lobed corolla about 3 to 5 cm in diameter, with a pink to red throat. They have 5 stamens and the ovary is positioned above the other flower parts. The fruits are egg-shaped, 5-10 cm long, and turn bright red at maturity. Sea Mango is native to Madagascar, South-East Asia, and many Pacific islands.

The Kherlen River is a river of 1,254 km length in Mongolia and China. The river has its origin in the south slopes of the Khentii Mountains, near this Burkhan Khaldun Mountain, about 180 km northeast of Ulaanbaatar. This area is the watershed between the arctic (Tuul River) and pacific (Kherlen, Onon) basins and named Three river basins. From there the Kherlen flows in a mostly eastern direction through the Khentii aimag. On its further way it crosses the eastern Mongolian steppe past Ulaan Ereg and Choibalsan, entering China at 48°3′N 115°36′E, emptying into Hulun Nuur after another 164 km.

Forest of the country consists of 140 species tree, shrub and larch, pine, cedar, spruce, fir are conifer, birch, aspen, poplar, elm, willow, shrub are deciduous. Dominant main tree is a larch

There have been 128 plant species registered in the second edition of Mongolian red book. This group includes 75 medicinal species, 11 for food, 16 species used in industry, 55 decorative species and 15 species used in the soil fixing process and in controlling pests. More than 100 species of plants are currently used for medicinal purposes and more than 200 species are used for pharmaceutical purposes. Additionally, 200 species are used for tea, 50 species for food and over 100 species are important for livestock feed.

These rare species of plants like Adonis Mongolica listed in the Mongolian Red Book. The habitats of rare species of plants in the Russian and Mongolian parts of the Baikal basin are visually presented on the map “Rare species of vascular plants” using the cartographic interpretation technique. In order to create this map for the Russian part of the basin, the authors used the lists and characteristics of rare species included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation (Plants and Fungi). In this part of the basin, the map shows the habitats of 31 vascular plants (see the list) with different categories of the extinction risk according to the Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Category 0 (probably extinct, but the possibility of their preservation cannot be excluded) includes Isoetes lacustris. Category 1 (endangered) includes four species: Astragalus olchonensis, Vicia tsydenii, Festuca bargusinensis, and Viola incisa. Category 2 (decreasing in number) also includes four species: Caulinia flexilis, Hedysarum zundukii, Epipogium aphyllum, and Deschampsia turczaninowii. Category 3 (rare) includes 25 species represented by small populations that are currently not endangered and vulnerable. Often, these species are distributed within a limited area or have narrow ecological amplitude.

For the map of the Mongolian part of the Baikal basin, we used information on the species composition and location of rare species of vascular plants from the electronic version of Mongolian Red Book. Habitats of 51 species are identified including a rare endemic species Saxifraga hirculus, six very rare relics: Adonis Mongolica, Vicia tsydenii, Kobresia robusta, Nymphaea tetragona, Lancea tibetica, and Tulipa uniflora, as well as rare relics: Zigadenus sibiricus and Caryopteris Mongolica are marked. Altogether, there are 31 very rare and 11 rare species.

The map “Rare species of vascular plants under regional protection” shows the Baikal basin’s habitats of rare species under regional protection in Irkutsk oblast (Red Book of Irkutsk oblast), Buryatia (Red Book of the Republic of Buryatia), and Zabaikalsky krai (Red Book of Chita oblast). Altogether, there are 868 habitats of 201 species of vascular plants listed in the regional Red Books and the Red Book of the Russian Federation. Species in different regions have different status depending on the state of species population. Among the regional species, Lagopsis eriostachya and Isoetes lacustris have Category 0 (probably extinct), while 28 species are endangered (Category 1).

The map “Plant communities requiring protection” uses conventional symbols and is created based on the information from the Green Book of Siberia, Atlas of Irkutsk Oblast, and Electronic Atlas of the Slyudyansky District. According to the Forest Code of the Russian Federation, forests under protection of Group 1 and forests in specially protected territories must be conserved in the Baikal basin because of their economic and social values. These forests serve to protect water resources, preserve the environment, and perform sanitary, hygienic, therapeutic, and other functions. The following communities also require protection due to their scientific importance as standards of indigenous vegetation: the Polygonum bistorta + Carex aterrima and Stemmacantha carthamoides meadows; Rhododendron aureum alpine tundras of the subalpine zone; Filifolium sibiricum, Festuca litvinovii, and Stipa klemenzii – S. Baicalensis – Eremogone capillaries steppes; Ulmus macrocarpa + Spiraea pubescens shrub steppe communities; Betula davurica – Artemisia desertorum + Calamagrostis brachytricha + Carex reventa forest communities; and Carex lasiocarpa + C. pseudocuraica + Iris laevigata marsh communities. Among the protected communities are very rare (Spodiopogon sibiricus; Armeniaca sibirica + Spiraea pubescens), relict (Arundinella anomala + Lespedeza hedysaroides), and unique (Stipa baicalensis + Paeonia lactiflora) communities, as well as communities located on the margins of their habitats (Pinus pumila; Caragana jubata) and reducing their habitat due to a high resource-related importance (Filifolium sibiricum + Phlojodicarpus sibiricus). The maps showing the distribution of rare vascular plant species and plant communities requiring protection can be used in the development of environmental policy aimed at optimizing nature resources management in the Baikal region to protect its biodiversity.

19 insect species (which includes 11 species of butterflies and moths, 4 species of wasps, 2 species of beetles, 1 species of dragonfly and 1 species of fly) are conserved by legal protection. The Mongolian water system is based on the following watersheds: Khalkh gol, Kherlen gol, Onon, Shishhed, Bulgan gol, Selenge, Tes, Great lake depression and the Southern lakes valley, and Mongolia itself geographically belongs to the three main water catchments in the region, being the Pacific Drainage Basin, Arctic Ocean Drainage Basin and the Central Asian Inland Basin (Figure 1). There are 76 species of fish belonging to 46 genera and 14 families reported in these watersheds. In the Arctic Ocean Drainage Basin there are 29 species, while in the Pacific Drainage – 43 species, and 10 in the Central Asian Inland Basin.

There are 6 species of amphibians in Mongolia belonging to 4 families of 2 orders, and 21 species of reptiles in Mongolia belongs to 13 genera, 6 families of 2 suborders. Mongolia’s diversity is low, compared to that of Middle Asia, Northeast Asia and Central Asian herpetological species, primarily due to the harsh continental climate of Mongolia.

Currently, about 472 bird species have been recorded in Mongolia, belonging to 61 families and 19 orders. There are 81 species of resident birds and 391 species of migratory birds. In addition, 254 species of migratory birds breed in Mongolia, 10 species are winter visitors from Siberia, 8 species are summer visitors and 64 species are vagrants.

Four major global migratory routes have been recognized in Mongolia: the East Asia-Australasia Flyway; the Central Asia flyway; the West Pacific flyway; and the Africa-Eurasia flyway. Of these, the former two account for the majority of bird migration.

Mongolia has 138 species of mammals, which belongs to 73 genus and 23 families, 8 orders; which includes 13 species of insectivores; 12 species of chiropters; 6 species of lagomorphs; 69 species of rodents; 24 species of carnivores; 2 species of perissodactyls; 1 species of tylopods; and 11 species of artiodactyls……Read more at “Khan the Great”….Sivkishen Ji, Author


Battle Tactics of Genghis Khan

Khabul Khan was the first known Khan of the Khamag Mongol confederation and great-grandfather to Genghis Khan. Bartan Baghatur was the second son of Khabul Khan. Yesügei was also Yesükhei and was the son of Bartan Baghatur and he was the father of Genghis Khan, the Great.

Genghis Khan led the Mongols from a poor existence on the steppes of Asia to the core of a mighty and still expanding, empire.  His successors would carry on his work until the Mongol Empire was the largest empire ever built, by landmass; this accomplishment has not yet been surpassed.  In large measure, this was accomplished by turning tribes of horsemen into a well-disciplined cavalry force and then applying that force with skill and guile against their neighbors.

Although not a battle tactic itself, the imposition of discipline among “the Mongol Hordes” and the creation of a communications system that gave commanders firm control over their troops are the factors that made Mongol tactics possible, and these factors are the personal achievements of Genghis Khan

The Mongol army was overwhelmingly a cavalry force.  As their conquests expanded, they added elements of artillery, that learned from their opponents, but these were mainly used in sieges and only rarely in open battle.  They also added elements of infantry from subject peoples, but the numbers of infantry were never permitted to be a large part of the attacking force; non-Mongols could not be trusted in great numbers in case the battle went badly and the foreign troops turned against their masters.  For all intents, the tactics of Genghis Khan were cavalry tactics.

Speed was an important consideration for the Mongols, and spare horses were kept, with at least one spare available per man.  Horses could, therefore, be ridden to exhaustion without crippling the mobility of the army.  Mongol speed was both strategic and tactic, applying to the movement of armies to a battlefield and to the movement of units within a battle.  Units were designated as light or heavy cavalry, with the distinction resting only in the absence or presence of armor.  Both types carried the same weaponry, consisting of powerful composite bows (two per man), a large complement of arrows, a spear or lance (reportedly including a hook to facilitate pulling a man from a horse), a lasso, and a backup weapon such as an axe or scimitar.  Light cavalry made use of their greater speed for more nimble maneuvers, while the heavy cavalry rode in to deal a decisive blow to targets softened up by the light cavalry.

The Mongols preferred to fight as mounted archers for as long as they could before closing in for hand-to-hand combat.  When possible, they would ride close to the enemy, fire arrows, and then ride away to let other units take up the fight.  When the cohesion of enemy units was broken, that was the time for a charge.

One popular formation was the practice of holding the heavy cavalry in the center, with part of the light cavalry behind it for support.  Two additional bodies of light cavalry would accompany the heavy cavalry to either side.  If the enemy veered to either side in order to strike at the flanks (and fight hand-to-hand against light cavalry instead of heavy cavalry), the heavy cavalry would turn to counterattack at the enemy’s own flank, while the light cavalry that hadn’t been engaged would try to strike the enemy’s rear.

The dangers of retreat to unit cohesion are obvious; less apparent are the corresponding dangers of anticipated victory.  When an army thinks it has beaten the foe, it will often break ranks either to plunder the dead or to pursue those who are retreating.  The Mongols were aware of this problem and undertook to take advantage of it in their enemies, even while their strict discipline attempted to avoid this problem in their own ranks.

The idea of engaging in a false retreat did not begin with the Mongols, but they refined it.  A large body of light cavalry, known as Mangudai, would engage the enemy, and then at a realistic point, they would retreat.  If the enemy pursued, they would come under attack by other units waiting for the opportunity.  If the enemy failed to pursue, the retreating horsemen would at least turn and fire their own arrows at them.  Then, the heavy cavalry charged into the weakened enemy.

At the same time, the Mongols were more than ready to take advantage of true retreat on the part of their foes, although they guarded against being taken unawares by a false retreat.  They often left open a single, well-chosen avenue of escape so that those who wished to flee could do so – but the Mongols would know where they went.  After dealing with the battle at hand, they followed the retreating body and destroyed it as well, leaving no force capable of resistance.

The word ‘Mongol’ was used as a tribal name until 1206 when Temüjin (Chinggis Qahan) was elevated to Great Qahan. The name then became synonymous with the state until 1271, when the Great Qahan Qubilai introduced the name Yuan Dynasty. Since then, ‘Mongol’ has been used as a general name for the Mongol people.

Genghis Khan knew the value of instilling fear in the enemy and was happy to utilize tricks to make his force seem even more fearsome than it was.  The practice of having several horses for each rider makes it easy to make the army seem larger than it was.  The Mongols were known to place mock bodies, much like scarecrows, on riderless horses to make their numbers seem larger; at night, the same effect was be created by having riders carry more than one torch. He had learned and adopted Chinggis Qahan’s Sixteen Military Tactics…..

Read: “Khan the Great!” and learn the Arts of War were based on five key elements: speed, suddenness, ferocity, a variety of tactics, and iron discipline…..Sivkishen Author

మోహిని అందం – భస్మాసుర అంతం!

ఆగ్రహం కలిగినప్పుడు ఎదుటి వారికి చెడు జరగాలని ఆదేశించడమే శాపం. అనుగ్రహం కలిగినప్పుడు ఎదుటి వారికి మంచి జరగాలని ఆశీర్వదించడమే వరం. శాపమిచ్చినప్పుడు శాపంగానూ, వరమిచ్చినప్పుడు వరంగానూ పనిచేయడం సహజం. కానీ ఒక్కోసారి వరాలు శాపాలుగా, శాపాలు వరాలుగా మారుతాయి. శాపం తిట్టులాంటిది. వరం దీవెన లాంటిది. చేసిన పాపానికి శిక్షగా విధించేది శాపం, పుణ్యానికి ప్రతిఫలంగా లభించేది వరం. పాపాలు శాపాలై కాటు వేస్తే, పుణ్యాలు వరాల హారాలై అలంకరిస్తాయి!

శ్రీ మహాభాగవత ఇతిహాసంలో మోహినీ అందానికి పరవశుడైన భస్మాసురుడు వరాన్ని, శాపంగా మార్చుకొన్న కథ

ప్రకారం భస్మాసురుడు శివుని భక్తుడు. అతను శివుడి నుండి వరం పొందడానికి గొప్ప తపస్సు చేసాడు. ఆ తపస్సు కారణంగా, మహాదేవుడు కరుణించి, ఒక వరం కోరుకొమ్మన్నాడు. భస్మాసురుడు తనకు అమరత్వాన్ని ప్రసాదించమన్నాడు, కానీ శివుడు తనకు అమరత్వాన్ని ప్రసాదించే శక్తి లేదన్నాడు. అప్పుడు భస్మాసురుడు తన కోరుకున్న వరం పద్ధతిని మార్చుకున్నాడు. భాస్మసురుడి తలను తమ చూపుడు వేలుతో తాకితే, వెంటనే కాలిపోయి, బూడిద (భస్మ) అవుతాడు. శివుడు ఆ వరాన్ని ప్రసాదించాడు. భస్మాసురుడు చాలా సంతోషించి, అధిక సంతోషంతో, మహాదేవుడు ఇచ్చిన ఆ వరాన్ని తనమీద తనే పరీక్షించుకోవాలని నిర్ణయించుకున్నాడు. వెంటనే, అతను తన బొటన వేలితో శివుని తలను తాకాలి అనుకున్నాడు. శివుడు కాలిపోయి, బూడిదైతే పార్వతిని చేపట్టాలి అనుకున్నాడు. శివుడు ఎక్కడికి వెళితే అక్కడికి భస్మాసురుడు అనుసరించాడు.

శివుడు విష్ణుమూర్తిని ఆశ్రయించి, ఆ పరిస్థితికి కారణమైన తనను ఈ ప్రమాదం నుండి తప్పించుకోవడానికి పరిష్కారం కోరాడు. మహావిష్ణు అతనికి సహాయం చేయడానికి ఒప్పుకున్నాడు.

క్షీరసాగర మధన సమయంలో అమృతం ఉద్భవించినప్పుడు దేవదానవులు పోరాడు కొనుచుండగా శ్రీమహావిష్ణువు లోకకళ్యాణార్థం జగన్మోహిని అవతారాన్ని ఎత్తి దేవతలకు అమృతాన్ని అందిస్తాడు.

ఆశ్చర్యంగా  మోహిని యొక్క అందమును చూసి భస్మాసురుడు వ్యామొహంలో పడిపోతాడు…అనాలోచితంగా

మోహితుడై ఎవరీ అందాల రాశి అని చూడ సాగాడు.

పాల’ మీగడ లాంటి అందం ఈమెది! ఎవరీ అద్భుత సౌందర్య రాశి? వివిధ  ఆకారాలలొ బారులు తీరి గూళ్ళు చేరుతున్న పక్షులు,  ఆకాసంలో సిందురంలా కనిపిస్తున్న సూర్యుడు, సంధ్యా  సమయమని పదే పదే గుర్తుచేస్తున్నాయి. అదేసమయములో పచ్చని పచ్చిక మీద  కొబ్బరిచెట్టు నీడలో   స్వేద తీరుతున్న అద్భుత సౌందర్య రాశి!

కొబ్బరి చెట్టుఆకుల  మధ్యనుండి వచ్చే సువర్ణచాయ నులివెచ్చని సూర్యకిరణాలు ఆమెకనులలో గుచ్చుకుంటుంటే, ఆమెకళ్ళు మిలమిలా ఆర్పుతుంటే ఆమెమోము వర్ణన తీతం. ఇంతలో సుర్యబింబానికి కాటుక దిద్దినట్లు కారుమబ్బులు  అలుముకున్నాయి  నింగిలో రంగులవిల్లు ఎక్కుపెట్టినట్లు ఇంద్రధనస్సు ఆకాశానికి   వన్నె తెచ్చింది. సంగీతంలా వినిపిస్తున్న పక్షుల కిలకిల రావాలు ,వెండి చినుకులవలె వర్షపు చినుకులు పడుతుంటే,

ఆనందంతో నెమళ్ళు పురివిప్పి సంగీతానికి తగినట్లుగా నాట్యం చేస్తున్నట్లుంది. అటుగావున్న కొలనులో పచ్చనితామరాకులు, వాటి మద్యలో రంగురంగుల కలువలు,వాటి మద్య ఖాళీలలో రంగు రంగుల చేపపిల్లలు ఆడుతున్న దృశ్యం ప్రకృతికే శోభ తెస్తున్నట్లుంది. పాదాల క్రింద పూలు నలిగిపోతాయా !  మెడ లోని చంద్ర హారం గుండె లకి తగులునా !

సుకుమార సుతి మెత్తని పాదాలు కంది పోతాయా ! అన్నట్లుగా మెల్లగా నడిచి వస్తున్న అందాలరాశి. చల్లని గాలికి ఎగురుతున్న నల్లని కురులు,  గట్లు తెంచుకున్న  నది పాయలవలె ప్రవహిస్తున్నాయి  చంద్రుని కాంతి ఆమె వజ్రపు ముక్కు పుడక పై పడి మోము  ప్రకాశంతో వెలిగిపోతుంది  ఆలకిస్తున్నట్లుగా ఊగుతూ  చెక్కిళ్ళను తాకుతున్న  లోలకలు.

మోహినీ స్వరూపుడైన శ్రీ మహావిష్ణువు కొప్పు నుంచి ఒక పుష్పం క్రింద పడుతుంది. దాన్ని తీసుకొని మరిమోహితుడై  ఎదుటనున్న  మోహినితో “నిన్ను పెళ్ళి చేసుకుంటాను” అని భస్మాసురుడు అనగా అప్పుడు మోహిని “నాకు నాట్యం అంటే చాలా ఇష్టం కావున నాలాగ నాట్యం చేసిన వారినే పెళ్ళాడుతాను” అని అంటుంది. భస్మాసురుడు ఆ పందెమును అంగీకరించి నృత్యం మొదలుపెడతాడు….మోహిని అడుగులకు, అడుగులను కలిపాడు, నృత్యం చేసే సమయంలో, మోహిని తన బొటన వేలిని తన తలకు తాకే భంగిమ పెట్టింది. భస్మాసురుడు ఆమెను అనుసరించాడు, అతను తన బొటన వేలిని తన తలపై ఆంచాడు, వెంటనే శివుని వరప్రభావము వలన భస్మాసురుడు భస్మమైపోతాడు.

ప్రీతి మీద అనురక్తితో ఉండే మానవులు ఎలా బంధానికి గురవుతున్నావిషయంలో శంకరులు వివేకచూడామణి( 78 ) లో ఇలా విశ్లేషించారు

శబ్దాదిభిః పంచభిరేవ పంచ

పంచత్వమాపుః స్వగుణేన బధ్ధాః

కురంగ మాతంగ పతంగ మీన

భృంగా నరః పంచభిరంచితః కిమ్”

లేడి అతివేగంగా పరుగుతీయగలిగేదైనా, స్వభావసిద్ధంగా దానికున్న శబ్దప్రీతిచేత, వేణువు శబ్దానికి తన్మయత్వంతో నిశ్చలంగా ఉండిపోతుంది. అందుకే వేణువును ఊది, ఈ ఉపాయంతో బోయవాడు లేడిని బంధిస్తాడు. ఇలా లేడి శబ్దప్రీతితో బంధానికి చిక్కుకుంటోంది. ఏనుగు బలమైనదే. అరణ్యంలో స్వేచ్ఛగా తిరుగుతూంటుంది. అంతటి బలమైన ఏనుగూ స్పర్శప్రీతివల్ల, ఆడ ఏనుగును ఎరగా చూపి ప్రలోభపెట్టి దాన్ని బంధించడం చేస్తుంటారు.మిడుత అగ్నియొక్క ప్రకాశానికి రూపప్రీతివల్ల, అగ్నివేపుకి ఆకర్షించబడి అగ్నికి ఆహుతి అవుతుంది.చేప రుచికి ప్రలోభపడి రసప్రీతిచేత గాలానికి గ్రుచ్చే మాంసానికి ఆకర్షించబడి ఎరకు చిక్కుకుంటుంది.భ్రమరం (తుమ్మెద) సంపంగి పుష్పపు (చంపక పుష్పం) సువాసనకు, దానికిగల స్వభావసిద్ధమైన గంధప్రీతిచేత ఆకర్షించబడి, పుష్పాన్ని చేరాలనే కఠినతాపత్రయంలో సాటి భ్రమరములతో ఉండే పోరాటంలో ఇది నశిస్తుంది.

అంచేత కర్తవ్యాన్ని సరిగ్గా నిర్వర్తించకపోతే, ఈ ప్రపంచంలోనే గాకుండా మరుజన్మలోనూ దుఖాన్ని అనుభవించాలి గదా! అందుకే శమదమాలను ఆచరిస్తూ మనస్సును, ఇంద్రియాలను జాగరూకతతో ఎప్పటికప్పుడు నియంత్రించడమే దీన్లో సాధన అంటారు….శివకిషెన్ జీ