Myths are the stories people tell to explain nature, history, and customs. The myth is a feature of every culture. Comparative mythology is the comparison of myths from different cultures in an attempt to identify shared themes and characteristics. Comparative mythology has served a variety of academic purposes. For example, scholars have used the relationships between different myths to trace the development of religions and cultures, to propose common origins for myths from different cultures, and to support various psychological theories. However, the poetic descriptions had become distorted over time into seemingly diverse stories about gods and heroes.
The Sarasvati River is one of the main Rigvedic Rivers mentioned in the scripture Rig Veda. Indo-European tribes lived there together and the ‘Indus Valley culture’ was developed. Aryan Gods like Indra, Agni, Saraswati, Surya and the Maruts years before and worshiped. The religious practices depicted in the Rgveda and those depicted in the Avesta, the central religious text of Zoroastrianism, show similarities. Connections between languages can be traced because the processes that change languages are not random, but follow strict patterns. Especially sound shifts, the changing of vowels and consonants, are important, although grammar (especially morphology) and the lexicon (vocabulary) may also be significant. Historical-comparative linguistics thus makes it possible to see great similarities between languages which at first sight might seem very different.
South Asia harbors two major ancestral components, namely the Ancestral North Indians which is “genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans,” and the Ancestral South Indians. These two groups mixed in India between 4,200 and 1,900 years ago (2200 BCE-100 CE) and were called as ‘Aryans’.
The word ‘Arya’ to denotes those peoples who spoke the Indo-European languages, which include English, German, Latin, Greek, Romans, Egyptians, Germans, Balts, Celts, Russian, Persian, Slavs, and Sanskrit. They lived together prior to the Rigvedic period on the banks of life-giving Saraswati River that was flowing down the Himalayan slopes with great splendor with abundant waters and copious rains provided ample sustenance for their farming and other activities. They established kingdoms, formed alliances, and created common systems of worship, living, and trade; as also measurement and mathematics. They developed ongoing cultural and trade contacts. The archeological discoveries in India, Russia, and Japan have pushed back the antiquity of the Aryans to at least 6000BC.
It took root well before the heyday of the pharaohs of Egypt (7000-3000 BC) or the Mesopotamian civilization (6500-3100 BC) in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates. The cradles of civilization were the Indus Valley Civilization existed for at least a thousand years before 6000BC along the Indus River. This was bigger than the civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Aryans were the founders of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization.
The Rigveda Hymns 1.108.8 and 8.10.5 gave details on the Rig Vedic Battles of Ten Kingdoms was fought on a question of values, not race. It was a conflict between spiritual values and materialistic values. Added to this, the Climate change, drought, deforestation, flooding, and socioeconomic strains, violence, and disease played a key role in the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization.
It was a turning point in the history of India because it firmly re-established the dominance of the Puru-Bharata Dynasty over smaller royal dynasties and tribal chieftains of the Sapta – Sindhu region going west towards present – day Magnolia, Afghanistan, Persia and east towards Foothills of the Himalayas and laid the foundations of Bharatavarsha. This Battle was also important as it heralded the spread of Vedic beliefs to other parts of the world.
The one subject that is still widely taught today is ancient Greek mythology. It is explicitly embodied in a large collection of narratives, and implicitly in Greek representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. These stories may have been written hundreds if not thousands of years ago, but it is good to remember they were written by wise men that had a hand in helping shape modern thinking. These great men, Aristotle and Sophocles to name a few, were not mere story-tellers; they didn’t spend their days weaving tales just because they wanted to and had nothing to do. They were too good for that and this is why their Greek myths have withstood the test of time and are relevant to today.
Several of antiquity’s great civilizations kept written records of the past. Yet the discipline of history in its modern form did not emerge until the Greeks—as well as the Romans and Chinese—began producing well-researched, secular narratives of events that made at least some attempt to separate fact from myth.
Well, all in Indo-European mythologies, the gods conquering demons and order conquering chaos is especially common. In Hindu mythology, the younger Devas (gods) battle the older Asuras (demons), though both are born from the same father, Kashyap, the grandson of Brahma. In the Greek myth of the Titanomachy, the Olympian gods defeat the Titans, an older and more primitive divine race, and establish cosmic order. Similarly, the Celtic gods of life and light struggled against the ancient gods of death and darkness.
The Mount Kailash, Mount Olympus, and Mount Fuji are Three Sacred Mountains in the Eastern Hemisphere. These are central to the subjects of many legends because they are closest to heaven or other religious worlds, which considered holy.
Mount Kailash is in almost in equal distance between to its eastern side at 3283 miles on 35°21′29″N 138°43′52″E is Mount Fuji near Tokyo in Japan with an elevation of 12,389.2 ft Japanese is an attractive volcanic cone. To the western side of Mount Kailash at 3308 miles on 40°05′08″N 22°21′31″E is Mount Olympus, highest peak Mytikas in Greece rises to 9,573 ft as the abode of 12 Olympian gods.
These Sacred Mountains have surfaced the historical or mythological roots by the various works of Historians and a number of Byzantine Greek writers and oldest known Greek literary sources including Homer’s Epic Poetry stories in the Iliad and Odyssey and reconciled origins with story-cycles clustered around the great Goddess Athena who considered as incarnation of mother Goddess Parvati and worship her in Greece, as well in the South and Central Asia, encompassing Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Tibet, Nepal, China and Japan. Egyptians worshiped her as the Libyan deity, Neith. Romans worshiped her as goddess Minerva. The Hurrians worshiped her as the goddess of the chaste virgin who had never taken a lover. She is worshiped as Tara throughout Tibet, Nepal and much of South-East Asia. She is worshiped as Mazu in the south-eastern coastal areas of China and neighboring areas in Southeast Asia as the goddess of the sea. She is worshiped as Quan Yin (Japanese Kannon). The sea and ships, as well as horses and chariots, are associated with her.
According to the Greek Mythology, Athena was the favorite daughter of Zeus and of the Titan Metis and one of the most powerful of the 12 Olympian gods. Her Abode is Mount Olympus in Greece.
Goddess Athena was unhappy in the way the noble Andromache was treated by Greeks. Now she chose the womb of Andromache to take birth as Olympias to have a Godson to establish righteous rule with justice and equality to all on the earth and put into application the concepts of “Citizenship, “Democracy” “Globalization” and build new cities with excellent infrastructure connecting West and East with Silk Road and Sea Routes. This was agreed by both Goddesses Hera and Aphrodite. All three Goddesses wanted King of Gods Zeus to give a Godson Alexander who would be the undefeated warrior king of the world with traits of Hercules, Achilles, and Hector to Olympias, the mortal form of Athena.
After receiving the blessings of King of Gods Zeus, the majestic, elegant, graceful, and the sophisticated Goddess of the Olympians carried a trident three-pronged spear, similar to a pitchfork with a floral decoration whose fragrant aroma gave forth from her body. She stepped out her owl with flashing eyes and moved into the womb of Andromache in invisible form, the birth of Olympias began at Epirus…
In July, 324 BC, the Great Assembly was conveyed by Alexander as he found that the solutions were not lying in the battles. The military achievements of Alexander have no rival in History. He had put into application the concepts of “Citizenship, but “Democracy” “Globalization” and built more than 70 new cities with excellent infrastructure. He laid Silk Road and Developed Sea Routes connecting both West and East. He tried to bring about a marriage of Eastern and Western cultures and create a unified world empire. He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered and he personally led various battles, unlike many kings who used to send their commanders to battles. He adapted friendly approach to his enemy that made him win the heart of all which shows what a great statesman he was! He had spread the Greek culture and values across the world and earned the epithet “the Great” due to his unparalleled success as a military commander.
Thousands of the linguistic specialist here have been developed a process of communication between Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Greece, Jordan, Israel, Anatolia, Phoenicia, Judea, Gaza, Bactria, Sogdia, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Egypt, Pakistan, Italian, Reggio Calabria, Rome, and Mesopotamia and geared up to replicate the languages of China, Japan, Korea and other countries.
The Olympic flame was sending its glow to the whole world, in which Queen Olympias was shining mysteriously, as she saw her son was showered with laurels by all Emperors and Empresses of the East and West. Right, there from her ethereal quality the great mother Athena suddenly manifested that stunned Alexander the great. She spoke very softly, “Oh my beloved son! Much pleased I am to say that I took the mortal form of Olympias as I desired to give birth to you as the triple powered hero with the traits of Hercules, Achilleis, and Hector. Your military achievements have no rival in History. You had put into application Citizenship, Democracy, and Globalization concepts and built new cities with excellent infrastructure. You did lay Silk Road and Developed Sea Routes connecting both West and East. You did create a unified world empire, yet never lost a battle and personally led various battles, unlike many kings who used to send their commanders to battles. You have adapted friendly approach to your enemy and won their hearts, which valued most! Further, you have spread and exchanged culture and values across the world and earned the epithet “the Great” due to your unparalleled success! You are always on your own strength, courage, valor, and self-esteem in the face of adversity!”
Now she turned towards Mount Olympus and said, “Oh, father Zeus! Thank you for giving me Godson who built the greatest empire in the shortest span of time in the history of the world. Now that my son accomplished his life mission, he is free. You can invite him to Havens with love and devotion, I praise and honor you!”
Alexander fell at the feet of the great Mother Goddess Athena and said, “Oh great mother! I am greatly indebted to you for all you have done for me.”
Just then, there was a lightning flickered with a continuous resonant sound in the skies as all the Olympic Gods descended joined by angels and saints and showering their blessings on Alexander the great!
Zeus, King of Gods said gently, “Oh dear Alexander! You are an eternal on the Earth! History will remember your accomplishments and see your greatness for establishing ideological global governance, evidencing a dramatic change in regimes of power: politically, economically and culturally for the welfare of all! We even need you in Heaven, Just Join us.” When Alexander joined his mother Athena, they all moved into the sky chariots, while all the participants watching spellbound!
Alexander’s body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket. According to Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander was laid to rest “would be happy and unvanquishable forever”. His death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed. After his death, Roxanne gave birth to his son. His General Perdiccas initially did not claim power instead suggesting that Roxanne’s baby would be king if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager, rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexander’s half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only.
The successors of Alexander the Great were called Diadochi. During the first 50 years after Alexander’s death, they fought a series of wars, named Wars of the Diadochi. It was split up among his three “highest/most loyal/most aggressive/whatever” generals into a Greek/Macedonian, Persian, and Egyptian Empire. Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians, however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed. Three main Successor States emerged:
The Ptolemies based themselves in Egypt, their main stronghold at Alexandria, but possessed colonies in Cyprus and the southern coast of Anatolia;
The Antigonids held onto Macedon, their capital at Thessalonica; and
The Seleucids, arguably the wealthiest of the three, controlled what is now Lebanon, Syria, and much of southern Turkey, their seat of power being Antioch.
Some smaller states existed. One of the more economically successful ones was Pergamum/ Pergamon, ruled by the Attalid dynasty, but other states include Pontus on the southern coast of the Black Sea and Nicomedia, based on the east bank of the Dardanelles. In the process, both Alexander IV and Philip III were murdered.
Where Alexander the Great left his Physical Body, there took place “The Evolution of Blue Sky God.”
Zeus is the King of the Gods and the ruler of the heavens had called for a meeting with all Sky Gods and Goddesses of Greek and others at the Burkhan Khaldun Mountain in the south slopes of the Khentii Mountains, northeast of Ulaanbaatar. This area is the watershed between the Arctic Tuul River and Pacific Kherlen, Onon basins and named “Three” river basins.
The gods attended to choose the God of Blue Sky are Hera, who is the Queen of Heaven and goddess of the air and starry constellations. Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. Aiolos is the king of the winds. He is appointed by Zeus to guard the storm winds which he kept locked away inside the floating island of Aeolia, releasing them at the request of the gods to wreak their havoc. Aither is the primeval god of the shining light of the blue sky. He is conceived of as the substance of light, a layer of bright mist which lay between the dome of heaven and the lower air which surrounded the earth. Astraeus is the Titan god of the stars. He is the father of the planets and the four seasonal winds by Eos the dawn. Astrothesiae is the spirits or living forms of the heavenly constellations. They are mostly heroes and creatures who were placed amongst the stars by the gods as a reward for some service or, in a handful of cases, as a memorial of their crimes. Aura is the Titan goddess of the breeze. Aurae were the nymphs of the breezes. Boreas is the god of the north wind whose wintry breath brought the cold of winter. He dwelt in a cave in the mountains of the far northern land of Thrace. Hecatoncheires were the three hundred-armed, fifty-headed giants. They were the gods of violent storms which they released from the gates of Tartarus. Eos is the winged goddess of the dawn. Eosphoros is the god of the dawn-star (the star Venus) seen in the morning skies. “Euros” is the god of the east wind and herald of the autumn season. Helios is the god of the sun whose orb was he wore upon his head as a bright aureole crown. Hesperus is the god of the evening star (the planet Venus). Hemera is the primeval goddess of the day. Herse is the goddess of the morning dew. Iris is the goddess of the rainbow. Khaos is the primeval goddess of the gap between heaven and earth. She was the air which men breathed. Khione is the goddess of snow. She was the daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia. Nyx is the primeval goddess of night. Notos is the god of the hot and sticky south wind who heralded the month of summer. Oreithyia is the goddess of cold, gusty mountain winds. She was the wife of Boreas. Ouranos is the primeval god whose body formed the solid dome of heaven. The Greeks imagined him as a bronze-bodied, star-spangled god whose hands rested upon the earth in the farthest east and feet in the farthest west. Selene is the goddess of the moon. Zephyrus is the god of the gentle west wind and the herald of spring.
Zeus is the King of the Gods said, “As you know that the gods of sky and weather were named “Theoi Ouranioi” or “Theoi Meteoroi” and Dyaus is the chief Indo-European sky father. The sky deities of Daytime-gods are typically distinct from the Nighttime-gods. They are collectively categorized as “Sky father” deities, with a polarity between sky and earth often being expressed by pairing a “Sky father” god with an “Earth mother” goddess. Tengri is considered to be strikingly similar to the sky god, Dyaus, and I propose that Tengri as the main god of the Turkic pantheon, controlling the celestial sphere.”
Tengri is now mandated by the God of Blue Sky unanimously by all.
Hera, the Queen of Heaven and goddess of the air and starry constellations said, “Congratulation Tengri! Thou were the Alexander the great! Thou shall be the main god of the Turkic pantheon, controlling the celestial sphere! From now Thou shall be worshipped as the chief deity of the Göktürks in the Central Asia.”
Zeus, the King of the Gods said, “The Burkhan Khaldun means the “God Mountain” and is also called Khentii Khan (The King of the Khentii Mountain range). It is one of the Khentii Mountains in the Khentii Province of northeastern Mongolia. It is the highest mountain in the region, rising to an elevation of 2,362 meters (7,749 ft), and is crescent-shaped. It is the source of several rivers: the Onon and Kherlen rivers flow into the Amur, which has its outfall in the Pacific Ocean; and the rivers Tuul, Kharaa and Yeruu flow northwards to join the Selenge, which empties into the Arctic Ocean. It is in a complex ecosystem with unique biodiversity which is defined as a “transition zone from Siberian permafrost land forms to great steppe”
Great Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and its surrounding landscape, lies in the central part of the Khentii mountains chain that forms the watershed between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, where the vast Central Asian steppe meets the coniferous forests of the Siberian taiga. Water from the permanently snow-capped mountains feeds significant rivers flowing both to the north and south. High up the mountains are forests and lower down mountain steppe, while in the valley below are open grasslands dissected by rivers feeding swampy meadows. Burkhan Khaldun is associated with Genghis Khan, as his reputed burial site and more widely with his establishment of the Mongol Empire in 1206. It is one of four sacred mountains he designated during his lifetime, as part of the official status he gave to the traditions of mountain worship, based on long standing shamanic traditions associated with nomadic peoples. This reflects the formalization of mountain worship by Genghis Khan, a key factor in his success in unifying the Mongol peoples during the creation of the Mongolian Empire, an event of vital historical significance for Asian and world history. A part of ancient Silk Road had been crossing through the Gobi Altai Region of western Mongolia.
Burkhan Khaldun Mountain has a spiritual significance unmatched by any other mountain in Mongolia, and is given the symbolic status of the “cradle” of Mongolia’s nationhood fully representing the “heritage and traditional ways of life of nomadic people of Mongolia”. It has given authenticity to the spiritual nature of the mountain, and as a result, regular pilgrimage is under taken by the people to the three sacred major ovoos or stone cairns fixed at the sacred sites along a specified route where Mongolian shamanic worship is offered. The specified route is unique and covers: Main Ovoo of Heaven at the pinnacle of the mountain via Gurvan Khoriud (“Three Forbidden Precincts”); the Uud Mod (“Two Trees of Entrance”); the Bosgo Tengeriin Davaa (“Threshold Pass of Heaven”); the catchment of the Kherlen River and the Sacred Bogd Rivers; and finally to the Beliin (“Lowest”) Ovoo.
This is where the Shamanism would become prevalent as a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness. The shaman also enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements. The shaman operates primarily within the spiritual world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment.
Thou shall be known to make plants grow and the lightning flash! Flowers always have a very special place in our lives. Flowers look beautiful and they are used by humans to decorate places, worship, and convey feelings, emotions, and sentiments to others by gifting flowers and growing flower gardens for landscaping and aesthetic happiness.
Have you ever passed by a bunch of Magnolia or Champaka flowers, and stopped and looked at them in awe? Yes, these pretty flowers are a pleasant sight. But, did you know that the oil derived from these flowers can actually uplift your mood and act as a stress buster?
As a matter of fact, the evergreen plant that blooms the Champaka flower is considered sacred and is cultivated mostly in India. The aroma of Nag Champaka oil is heavy yet sweet. It is majorly used in places of religious worship in India. This is owing to its calming effect on the mind. The fragrance helps in making the devotees calm and focused on the prayer and religious activities happening in such places. The heavy aroma lingers in the temples and other places of worship for a long time and creates an aromatic ambiance that befits the nature of such places. In some Asian cuisines, the buds are pickled and used to flavor rice and scent tea. In Japan, the young leaves and flower buds of Magnolia hypogeusia are boiled and eaten as a vegetable. The bark and flower buds of have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. The aromatic bark activates the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. The French song describes the magnolia trees in Beirut and calls for peace.”
Mongolia, the ‘Land of Blue Sky’, home of the greatest empire the world has ever known and Asia’s last undiscovered wilderness. Awesome expanses of rolling steppe, home to Mongolia’s famous horses and herdsmen, meet high glacial mountains, impenetrable forests and deep, crystal lakes. To the south the great Gobi Desert stretches to the horizon; empty save for deep canyons and sweeping dunes. Across much of this vast land little has changed since the days of Genghis Khan….. Read ” Khan the Great” and know more about Genghis Khan.,,,,Sivkishen Ji, Author